Kidney is considered failed, when they lose their functionality fluids, which may result in the build-up of salts and waste in the blood stream. Healthy kidney cleanses excess fluids, minerals and other bodily waste products collected by the blood through the production of urine. Healthy kidneys also help in balancing the volume of electrolytes and regulate the PH range in the body, it releases a central hormone in the control of blood pressure and various other physiological function called ‘rennin’. The nephrons, which are the blood –filtering unit of the kidney may stop functioning properly when injury or illness occurs.
IgA nephropathy: this is the deposition of IgA immune complexes in the glomeruli, or the tufts of blood capillaries, in the nephrons of the kidney. IgA nephropathy occurs in persons of all ages but is common in young adults. The first sign of glomerular diseases is usually blood or protein in the urine. Initially it may not be detected because it usually stays clinically silent for a number of years. The reason young people do not show any obvious signs of kidney malfunction is because the process takes several years to progress to end-stage when the symptoms become visible. Early treatment of IgA nephropathy is the key to protecting the kidneys. The treatment goal is aimed at both lowering the arterial pressure and reducing proteinuria–the presence of excess protein in the urine.
Good pasture’s syndrome, or anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, causes glomerulonephritis, or acute or chronic inflammation of the renal glomeruli–the clusters of microscopic blood vessels in the kidneys. The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse says that although this disease is rare, it affects mostly young men but also occurs in women, children and older people. Persons with Good pasture’s syndrome may rapidly progress to the end-stage of renal disease, or total loss of kidney function, especially when the disease is not detected or treated early, says American Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Polycystic kidney disease: which is also known as polycystic kidney syndrome and PKD, is a genetic disorder of renal cyst formation. This diseases is characterized by the presence of numerous small cysts in both kidneys. The two major forms of PKD,are; autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases. They are distinguished by their patterns of inheritance. Autosomal dominant PKD is common in both children and adults, but occurs mostly in young adults, according to MedlinePlus. For some people, the symptoms of autosomal dominant PKD may not manifest until middle age.